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Home Special Topics Theology of Work Angela Tsang: Live All of Life for God
Angela Tsang: Live All of Life for God PDF Print E-mail
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Tuesday, 29 June 2010 21:29

Live All of Life for God

Referee: Prof. Benedict Kowk
Author: Angela Tsang

Introduction

Since the laity spends an enormous amount of time working inside or outside the home, their “church time” must be only a fraction of their life for God. Unless we equip the laity to live all of life for God, Christianity will degenerate into mere religion. I had to learn the true spirituality is hammering nails for God and praying before a precise saw cut. Glorifying God is going home and listening to and enjoying the news of my three children as they recite their day’s activities. The secret of having a single eye to God is to leave no part of one’s bodily life in the dark.

R. Paul Stevens, Liberating the Laity1

When R. Paul Stevens wrote this inspiring remark in his book “Liberating the Laity” twenty odd years ago, he pointed out a phenomena that has existed throughout ages but becoming more apparent today: the so called “lay” Christians are not living “all of life for God”, the dualistic view, which the time spent at work to provide for the family and at home to deal with the daily chores and responsibilities is deemed as “secular” time apart from the “sacred” time spent in church ministry. Work hour in Asia, i.e. Hong Kong, can be much longer and demanding than other part of the world, 2 which their stay at home time is often deprived let alone “church time”.

With this mind set, devoted “lay” Christians often felt disillusioned by the fact that they are limited in time and effort in church ministry and therefore, are not serving God faithfully. They are caught in the dilemma of almost entirely absorbed by the task at work and at home that there is hardly energy left for the various church activities and commitments. No wonder occurrence of “burnt out” Christians is increasing, which can also be an underlying cause to marriage and family problem. There seemed to be a constant struggle over the question regarding priority in life and who come first: God, church, family or work?

On the contrary, some “lay” Christian deemed the fulfillment of church commitments and activities, i.e. Sunday worship, Sunday school, fellowship and prayer meeting warrant a “good” spiritual life. As R. Paul Stevens remarked in the aforementioned, “Unless we equip the laity to live all of life for God, Christianity will degenerate into mere religion”, sure enough, the dualistic view segregate “secular” and “sacred” life, implicated that Christianity has become a religion to many believers.

When R. Paul Stevens remind us: “The secret of having a single eye to God is to leave no part of one’s bodily life in the dark.” The question is how can we integrate our Christian identity into our work and live with a single eye to God?

A proper work view helps us to understanding our vocation in life, it can steer us to a proper perspective in work ethics, work attitude and relationship to our co-worker and superior. As R. Paul Stevens stated succinctly, “The gospel announces that without Christ we can never fulfill our calling as keepers of the earth…family…culture and civilization. The Gospel should enable us to become the best citizens of the world…artist…homemakers…scientists…politicians or educators.”3

It is the focus of this paper to explore the following topics in Work Theology, and understand the various aspects from Creationism, highlights in the Book of Ecclesiastes, and Jesus’ redemption:

  • The nature and meaning of work before and after the Fall of mankind

  • Is work a curse from God?

  • The importance of Jesus’ redemption in our work view and work ethics.

  • Calling and our vocation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Meaning and Nature of Work before the Fall

26 Then God said, "Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground." 27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. 28God blessed them and said to them, "Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air and over every living creature that moves on the ground." (Genesis 1: 26 – 28)

It was God’s original intention for man to “rule over” or “dominion” (KJV, ASV) “管理” (, , ) in Gen 1: 26 and repeat in v 28 “to subdue” over all the earth, and over all the creatures that moves on the ground. Man (male and female) was created in God’s likeness, bestowed with wisdom and creativity. The creation mandate or cultural mandate calls man and woman to be stewards of God’s creation.

Before Adam was created, there was no man to work the ground of Eden. God created man in His own image and “there He put the man he has formed” (Gen 2:8b) to enjoy the garden God has planted in Eden and also to work in the garden and to take care of God’s creation (Gen 2:4b-9a, 15). G. P. Hugenberger remarked that “to work” and “to take care” cited in Gen 2:15 bears the customary sense in Hebrew text: “serve” and “guard” or “keep” which refer to action with respect to the ground of the garden of Eden.4 Thus the call of stewardship over the creation was to “serve” and “keep” the Garden of Eden. The stewardship over all the creatures that moves on the ground also involved naming the living creatures as the LORD God brought them to the man (Genesis 2: 19). The creation mandate includes the full range of work experiences from farming to human genetic engineering, from technology to homemaking.5 The role of being the servant of God and the keeper of His creation is apparent.

Eden was a fertile and productive land (Gen 2: 9; Ezk 36: 33-36), the nature of Adam’s role was to maintain and sustain, but not to work for his livelihood because God has already provide “You are free to eat from many tree in the garden” (Gen 1:29,30; 2:16). It is deemed that creation and distribution is in perfect harmony.6

God also instilled the nature of community and the establishment of family in the call of stewardship. Adam named the living creatures in the presence of God (Gen 2:19). God deemed “it is not good for the man to be alone” (Gen 2:18) that He would make a helper suitable for Adam. He also blessed the first married couple to be fruitful and multiply to fill the earth and subdue it. He intended to have “them” rule over the creation (Gen 1:28).

The nature of work in Eden involved 5 aspects in the sense of creation: to add value; to make a profit; no negative creation; no violating of proper limit and no shifting of costs to others via externalities.7

Two important aspects can be concluded on work before the Fall: First, Adam received the creation or cultural mandate, call to stewardship over God’s land and creation. This mandate was blessed by God (Gen 1:28) and He concluded His creation at the end of the sixth day with the remark, “very good” (Gen 1:31). Therefore work is good. Secondly, the first mandate was for man to take care of God’s land and creatures in corporate effort and to work in partnership and communication with God, which is the beginning of worship.



The Nature of Work after the Fall

17 To Adam he said, "Because you listened to your wife and ate from the tree about which I commanded you, 'You must not eat of it,'
"
Cursed is the ground because of you; through painful toil you will eat of it all the days of your life. 18 It will produce thorns and thistles for you and you will eat the plants of the field. 19 By the sweat of your brow you will eat your food until you return to the ground, since from it you were taken; for dust you are and to dust you will return."

(Genesis 3: 17 – 19, NIV)

Hence, William H.U. Anderson deemed that the curse of work in mankind is the core message of Genesis 3: 17 – 19 and many passages in Ecclesiastes which repeatedly suggested work is unfruitful and meaningless (3-11; 2:17-23, 26b; 3:12-2b, 3b, 5a, 7a, 9-15, 22, 5: 17-18, 8: 15-16, 9: 9-11). He also suggested the four aspects associated with work are also under God’s curse: the pursuit of knowledge (Ecc1:18, 7: 23-25, 12: 9-12); the pursuit of business together with the pursuit of achievement (Ecc 4: 4; 4: 5 – 10, 2: 4-26, 5: 9-16, 6: 1-9, 11: 1-6) and the pursuit of politics (Ecc 4: 1; 3: 15-17; 4: 2-3, 13-16; 5: 6-7; 7:6-9; 8:1 – 10: 20).8

Nonetheless, G.P. Hugenberger deemed that the Fall did not change the underlying mandate to work, but in turn, introduced frustration to the process of work which involved “painful toil” since the ground become unproductive, resistant to the effort of work, and will produce thorns and thistles. The mandate did not change but the “pain” of the process was. Moreover, the position of man’s work changed from “guarding” and “tilling” the ground of Eden to “the ground from which he had taken” (Gen 3: 23, NIV), which is outside of Eden. The task of “guarding” was assigned to the cherubim. 9

Likewise, Benedict Kwok also pointed out that God’s curse is not on “work” itself but “cursed is the ground” (Gen 3:17-18). However, the nature of the work changed from maintenance to toil for livelihood in a difficult condition (Gen 3:19),10 because the curse on the ground led to infertility and work became under productive and futile. As William Messenger described “Sundering of profit from the value creation, sundering of creation and distribution of value, sundering of good activities from successful outcome.”11 Sin led to broken value, broken relationship, and it jeopardized the harmony and balance in God’s creation.

In spite of the fact that sin has made creation itself to groan (Rom 8:19-23) and changed the nature of work, God has never revoked the first mandate. Even though man toil for livelihood, work itself is not a curse, the hardship is a result of the curse to the ground “He named him Noah and said, "He will comfort us in the labor and painful toil of our hands caused by the ground the LORD has cursed." (Gen 5:29)

The two aspects that can be concluded on work after the Fall: the cultural mandate of stewardship received before the Fall remained unchanged, God still provides through His creation, He also provides and enable skill and knowledge (Isa 10:15, 54:16; Exo 25:8, 31:2, 36:1; Isa 28:23-29) to work.12 But the distorted nature of work resulted in alienation: broken relationship with God, neighbor and the environment, 13 and man failed to attain the God intended mandate at the time of creation!

 

The Meaning of Work after the Fall

Adam and Eve chose to disobey God by eating from the Tree of the knowledge of good and evil because “the woman saw that the fruit of the tree was good for food…pleasing to the eye,…desirable for gaining wisdom” (Gen 3:6) This act of disobedience that led to the Fall of mankind reflected the spirit of pride and desire to be equal with the Creator, the ability to decide good and evil. Even though God did not revoke the cultural mandate, man’s self-centeredness and pride hampered the fulfillment of this first mandate. The first murder in human history was described in Gen 4: 2-10 committed by Cain, son of Adam and Eve, it is a consequence of jealousy and anger, an example of broken relationship in the family, Cain killed his brother Able. As Benedict Kwok pointed out in his article “Market Place Theology Cultural Reformation” that both Cain and Able carried out their cultural mandate, Cain worked the soil and Able kept the flock, but Cain was angry at his brother because God “looked with favor on Abel’s offering” (Gen 3:4) Despite God’s comfort and reminder (Gen 3:6) Cain was taken over by his jealousy, instead of being remorseful and penitent, he shifted his anger towards his brother and killed him while they were in the field, Cain’s “work place” (Gen 3:7).14 Cain’s descendent carried out many development in culture and civilization, they became fathers of musician and metal smith (Gen 4: 19-22). However, the intense spirit of vengeance can be seen i.e. Lamech, who proclaimed that he will revenge “seventy-seven times” on those who had wounded or injured him, which is eleven times more than Cain, his ancestor (Gen 4: 23-24). After the Flood, the Tower of Babel was also an evidence of arrogance and prides for mankind to showoff their achievement in engineering technology and culture (Gen 11: 3-4). It seemed apparent that in the early human history, the spirit of rivalry, conflict and hatred together with pride and self-centeredness mingled within the development of culture and civilization. Sin hindered man from keeping the first mandate, a humble steward that work with peers and with God to keep the land. As William Messenger described, the sinful nature of mankind added frustration to the goodness of work today: Impossible deadlines, inadequate pay and no benefits, child workers, racial and gender discrimination, conflict at work, pressure to lie, cheat and steal, dead end jobs, imbalance between work and family and community life.15

The distortion in work nature, and relationship not only resulted in frustration it also led to a meaningless outcome from our work hard in life. The writer of Ecclesiastes repeatedly expressed that toil under the sun is utterly meaningless because he witnessed much disappointment and nuisances, “Meaningless! Meaningless!" says the Teacher. Utterly meaningless! Everything is meaningless. 3 What does man gain from all his labor at which he toils under the sun?” (Ecc 1: 2-3) The lack of ultimate meaning in work contributed to the emptiness and dissatisfaction associated with the different pursuits in life: the pursuit of knowledge, “For with much wisdom comes much sorrow; the more knowledge, the more grief.” (Ecc1:18 and also in 7: 23-25, 12: 9-12); the pursuit of business together with the pursuit of achievement, “And I saw that all labor and all achievement spring from man's envy of his neighbor. This too is meaningless, a chasing after the wind.” (Ecc 4: 4 and also in 4: 5 – 10, 2: 4-26, 5: 9-16, 6: 1-9, 11: 1-6); also the pursuit of politics, “Again I looked and saw all the oppression that was taking place under the sun: I saw the tears of the oppressed— and they have no comforter; power was on the side of their oppressors— and they have no comforter.” (Ecc 4: 1 also in 3: 15-17; 4: 2-3, 13-16; 5: 6-7; 7:6-9; 8:1 – 10: 20).

Even though the pessimistic work view seemed to be the predominant theme throughout the Book of Ecclesiastes, the writer called the attention of the readers to a very important fact, that despite the emptiness of toil in labor, the burden God had laid on men, “He has made everything beautiful in its time. He has also set eternity in the hearts of men; yet they cannot fathom what God has done from beginning to end.” (Ecc 3:9-11) The writer, though pessimistic was not overtaken by cynicism. He recognized the rhythm of life (Ecc 3), everything has its timing in God’s sovereignty and therefore become meaningful in the eternal plan of God. On the contrary, apart from God, the meaning of work became dismal.

Sin is an active rebellion against God, the apostle Paul stated in Romans 1: 21-22, “For although they knew God, they neither glorified him as God nor gave thanks to him, but their thinking became futile and their foolish hearts were darkened.” Breaking away from God resulted in a futile and distorted life view. Moreover, the darkened foolish heart lost sight of the eternal value and ultimate meaning in life including the meaning of work. The depraved mind became too wrapped up in pursuing for one’s selfish desire, trapped in a vicious cycle of chasing after one’s own gratification, and therefore cannot appreciate the rhythm of life in God’s plan.

The corrupted human nature of selfishness and pride prevented mankind from fulfilling the first mandate and also lost sight of the ultimate value and meaning of work. Without a renewal of heart and mind, the fallen men cannot fully envision and practice the higher calling of the cultural mandate and work became ultimately meaningless.



Jesus’ Redemption bring New Meaning to Work

The gospel is the good news because it has the power to transform mankind. “Yes, Adam’s one sin brings condemnation for everyone, but Christ’s one act of righteousness brings a right relationship with God and new life for everyone. Because one person disobeyed God, many became sinners. But because one other person obeyed God, many will be made righteous.” (Rom 5: 18-19 NLT). Moreover, the Spirit of God renews the heart and mind of those who live in accordance with the Spirit. “…the mind of sinful man is death, but the mind controlled by the Spirit is life and peace…” (Rom 8:6)

Therefore, man can become a new creation through Jesus redemption, “This means that anyone who belongs to Christ has become a new person. The old life is gone; a new life has begun! And all of this is a gift from God, who brought us back to himself through Christ.” (II Cor 5:17, 18a NLT). Christ’s redemption reconciles the broken relationship between God and man. A renewed heart can be enlightened with a higher vision in life and gain a new perspective and meaning to all the toil in work, “Even so, I have noticed one thing, at least, that is good. It is good for people to eat, drink, and enjoy their work under the sun during the short life God has given them, and to accept their lot in life. And it is a good thing to receive wealth from God and the good health to enjoy it. To enjoy your work and accept your lot in life—this is indeed a gift from God. God keeps such people so busy enjoying life that they take no time to brood over the past.” (Ecc 5: 18-20 NLT) The hardship and frustration in work did not change, what have changed is the believers’ hearts and minds. Being in tune with God one can view “work” in a higher perspective. When the believers in Christ accept their “lot in life” they can find contentment and be at peace with God and themselves. Christians can then “enjoy” the everyday work which in turn is a gift from God. They can recognize God’s sovereignty in the rhythm of life, and be content with His provision, enjoy the fruit of their labor with a gracious heart.

Therefore, through a new life in Christ, Christians gain new perspective to the meaning of work. Work can be meaningful in light of God’s sovereign plan.

 

New Creation: new work ethics

Jesus’ redemption brings reconciliation between God and man, when one anchor in the eternal Creator, one find new value, new identity and new relationship with others. Each of these new perspectives affects our work ethics.

First, new value in Christ: “Do not conform any longer to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind,” (Rom 12:2) When believers let the Holy Spirit guide their lives. They won’t be doing what their sinful nature craves. (Gal 5:16) By walking in the Spirit, Christians experience the power of turning away from self not falling into the trap of “wearing out ourselves for riches” (Pro 23:4) Money is no longer the sole reason for work and the most favorable choice for choosing a career. With this new value, one will not spend excessive amount of time at work for the sake of wealth at the expense of one’s family, marriage and personal health. Believers with a God fearing heart can appreciate and be grateful with God’s unfailing grace and provision in life despite the toil and brevity (I Tim 6:6). They become too busy enjoying God’s provision in life that there is no time for wining and complaining about past and present (Ecc 5: 18-20).

Second, new identity in Christ: “once you had no identity as a people; now you are God’s people.” (I Pet 2:10). Christians, who anchored their identity in the eternal God, will find “rest in work”.16 They do not need to attach their identity to their work and attempt to become through work the architect of their own fulfillment nor base their identity and worth entirely on what they do and how well they do it. Many are trapped in bitterness of failure to achieve their dream career, others strife hard to reach for the higher position and face even more frustration and discontent. To anchor one’s identity in God means trusting God to fulfill one’s dream in His own timing and sovereign plan, trusting God to meet one’s needs if one remain righteous and walk in His command, trusting God to integrate one’s identity when one consistently relate to the family of God.17 It is certainly a breakthrough in life when Christians can be inspired to perceive life from a higher perspective: how their past shaped their present, and a positive outlook to which, one is going to become in Christ.18

Third, new relationship with others in Christ: Benedict Kwok promotes the importance of aiming for a team-centered success instead of individual excellence at work. Since the Theology of Trinity emphasized the communal aspect of the Triunal God (being-in community), and likewise, the Theology of man characterized that man is a social being (person-in-community).19 The sense of community is also apparent when man (male and female) receive the call of stewardship (Gen 1:28). Unfortunately, the society tends to value individual success more than team achievement. In light of our call of stewardship, Christ followers should strife for outstanding performance that could both build up team members and empower oneself. This is very different from the inclination of this society where striving for excellence means contend and win over one’s colleagues and peer. A God-centered life can be reflected with an attitude of humbleness in serving and respectful when relating to others. Believers in leading role at work should learn to be “others-oriented” instead of being self-centered. One should always try to maintain a “win-win” situation with peer and competitor, even when they showed indifference, so that tension built up in relationship can be reconciled. True success at work, in a Christian perspective, is not to contend with colleagues or peers, but to attain one’s goal in life with consideration and empathy.20

 

New Creation: new calling to our vocation

Those who received life in Christ are bestowed with a new mandate. “…this is a gift from God, who brought us back to himself through Christ. And God has given us this task of reconciling people to him. For God was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself, no longer counting people’s sins against them. And he gave us this wonderful message of reconciliation.” (II Cor 5:18, 19 NLT) Man failed to keep the first mandate, God gave man in Jesus the missionary mandate, the new creation mandate or the Great Commission (Mt28:19-20; I Pet 2:9; Col 1:28). The second mandate is given to us in order to restore the first.21 The purpose of Jesus’ redemption is the restoration of the whole person in relation to God, to neighbor and environment. The gospel proclaims that without Christ we can never fulfill our calling as keepers of the earth, keepers of the family, and keepers of culture and civilization (Heb 2:5-9; Col 1:15-23; Eph 1:21; 3:10). R. Paul Stevens strongly believe that the two mandates form a unity: our call to work to sustain the world and our call to evangelize the world with the message of redemption through Christ are both inherent in the life of each believer. We are saved in order to fulfill God’s original intention.

 

 

 

 

Conclusion

In conclusion, work is not a curse from God, but the consequence of sin brought curse to the ground, and the process of work became painful toil, full of frustrations and the outcome of work seemed fruitless and meaningless. God in His sovereign grace did not revoke the first mandate (creation or cultural mandate) give us the grace to restore this mandate through Jesus’ redemption. When one became a new creation in Christ, work became meaningful in light of God’s eternal plan and frustration can turn into enjoyment and contentment in God. Because of the renewed mind and heart, Christians can work with new set of values and relationship that can glory God. Work became ministry in light of the second mandate in Christ, the mission mandate or new creation mandate. There should be no segregation of “secular” and “sacred” work because all vocations are God’s calling.

Three stonemasons were once asked what they were doing. Cutting along a chalk line with mallet and chisel, one said, “I’m cutting this stone.” The second said, “I’m earning my pay.” The third replied, “Why, I’m building a cathedral.”

R. Paul Stevens, Liberating the Laity 22

R. Paul Stevens told this illustration to point out that the product of these three workers might have looked the same, each may have their own reason to do an excellent job, but what was different was the soul of the worker. Christians “stonemasons” must build a cathedral in the society and city saints who can turn screw on an assembly line for God’s glory, and homemakers that will wipe noses or scrub walls and salve hurts for the love of Jesus.23 Thus one should not segregate work and ministry, whether work before ministry or ministry before work, but “all work will be ministry and all ministry, work.”24

The Great commission may be deemed as a higher priority for the Christian than is the cultural mandate, but R. Paul Stevens stated concisely that when we do our work on earth for God, the kingdom of God is advanced. “Evangelism is the apex of kingdom work, not the whole; the center, not the circumference.” 25 The cultural and mission mandates cannot be separated; the gospel should enable us to become the best citizens of the world and the best employee to our job.

Therefore, Christians are called to serve God with their vocation despite the type and position in work. Although the work nature is diverse, each calling is unique, and this diversity adds to the out reach of the church’s mission. Christians should discover the unity in ministry and vocation and to live fully in both for God’s Kingdom.

R. Paul Stevens also raised Christians’ awareness of the fact that if one fail to link mission to vocation that one can produce an inconsistent definition of worldliness. Religious Christians only relate vocation to ministry in church gathering; will end up defining “worldliness” as any involvement more than absolute necessity in this world’s affair, in terms its social life and culture including our job and career.26 This isolation will only produce the tragic “religious” worldliness of legalism, asceticism and ritualism. We are freed from the world in the world by entering daily into the awareness of God’s grace and by walking in the Spirit.27

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography:

 

  1. Anderson, William H.U., “The Curse of Work in Qoheleth: An Exposé of Genesis 3:17-19 in Ecclesiastes,” Evangelical Quarterly 70 (1998) 2, 106

 

  1. Au, Winton, “Survey on Overtime Work in Hong Kong”, The Chinese University of Hong Kong Press Releases, 4 November 2005.

  2. www.cuhk.edu.hk/ipro/pressrelease/051104e.htm

 

  1. Hugenberger, G.P., “Is Work the Result of the Fall? A Note on Genesis 2:15”, <http://www.parkstreet.org/gordons_class> Sep 2002, 8 (download on Sep 26th 2009)

 

  1. Kwok, Benedict, “” (Market Theology and the Community),

 

  1. Kwok, Benedict, “Market Place Theology and Cultural Reformation”

 

  1. Messenger, William “Creation and Culture,” <http://www.intervarsity.org/followingchrist/tracks/business/resources/FC02_Messenger.ppt> (download on Sep 26th 2009)

 

  1. Stevens, R. Paul, Liberating the Laity, (Vancouver: Reagent College Publishing, 2002)

 

 

 

 

 

1 R. Paul Stevens, Liberating the Laity, (Vancouver: Reagent College Publishing, 2002), 24.

2OT seems to be quite common in Hong Kong. Half (49%) of the people surveyed have done some OT works during the 7 days before interviewed…Among those who had done OT, the median OT hours in the past 7 days is 6 hours. The median number of days in a month in which they work OT is 8 days…The average number of working hours per week for those who had not worked OT in the past 7 days is 48 hours. For those who had worked OT, the average is 54 hour. Compared with these numbers, the official statistics for the whole population is 49 hours per week. (Winton Au, “Survey on Overtime Work in Hong Kong”, The Chinese University of Hong Kong Press Releases, 4 November 2005.

www.cuhk.edu.hk/ipro/pressrelease/051104e.htm

 

3 Stevens, Liberating the Laity, 94.

4 Hugenberger, G.P., “Is Work the Result of the Fall? A Note on Genesis 2:15”, <http://www.parkstreet.org/gordons_class> Sep 2002, 8 (download on Sep 26th 2009)

5 Stevens, Liberating the Laity, 94.

6 Messenger, William “Creation and Culture,” <http://www.intervarsity.org/followingchrist/tracks/business/resources/FC02_Messenger.ppt> (download on Sep 26th 2009)

7 Messenger, “Creation and Culture”

8 Anderson, William H.U., “The Curse of Work in Qoheleth: An Exposé of Genesis 3:17-19 in Ecclesiastes, ” Evangelical Quarterly 70 (1998) 2, 106

9 Hugenberger, “Is Work the Result of the Fall? A Note on Genesis 2:15”, 9.

10 Kwok, Benedict, “”, 113-114

11 Messenger, “Creation and Culture,” (download on Sep 26th 2009)

12 Kwok, “”, 114.

13 Kwok, “”, 115.

14 Kwok, “Market Place Theology and Cultural Reformation” 1.

15 Messenger, “Creation and Culture,” (download on Sep 26th 2009)

16 Stevens, Liberating the Laity, 87

17 Stevens, Liberating the Laity, 90

18 Kwok, “”, 124.

19 Kwok, “”, 121.

20 Kwok, “”, 122.

21 Stevens, Liberating the Laity, 94

22 Stevens, Liberating the Laity, 90.

23 Stevens,, Liberating the Laity, 91

24 Stevens,, Liberating the Laity, 91

25 Stevens,, Liberating the Laity, 94 - 95.

26 Stevens, Liberating the Laity, 96-97

27 Stevens, Liberating the Laity, 97.

Last Updated on Tuesday, 29 June 2010 22:25
 
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