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Home Speziale Themen Erlösungslehre 岑朝欣: 「一次得救,永遠得救」之閱讀報告
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Montag, den 12. Februar 2018 um 09:56 Uhr

一次得救,永遠得救」之閱讀報告

推介人:郭鴻標博士

作者:岑朝欣

一、引言

基於此篇為閱讀報告,本文在形式上會分為兩大部分,上半部是筆者對各篇文章的描述及歸納、撮寫其中的主要觀點,而下半部份是筆者綜合各篇文章的分析評論。

二、描述部份

(一) 有關預定在教義中的位置

Muller指出近代學者認為預定在神學體系中被放置的位置,是影響著其自身的定義及整體的教義。不過,若因此將加爾文的教義基於預定理論的安排來與後來的改革宗神學之間作對比,是有偏頗的。又認為伯撒(Beza)將預定論聯繫於創造學說,使預定不是以聖經啟示為基礎,而是變為哲學思辨的討論。[1]

在神學系統中預設教義的位置,對於教義的意義和系統本身的邏輯有巨大的影響,而卡爾巴特(Karl Barth)對各種預定位置的考察,對幾代歷史學家和神學家產生了巨大的影響。巴特確定了教義的六個位置,賦予其神學意義,他是一個重新解讀「以基督為中心」的改革者。[2] 巴特會根據建立在基督裡的特殊關係,扭轉了秩序及上帝與世界的一般關係的理解。巴特將預定論放在神論及創造論、並救恩論的範疇討論,[3] 也將預定論連繫於復和上。不過,Muller認為巴特錯誤地將教義的位置及其重要性連繫在一起。[4]

加爾文的研究作品,其理論編排是著重建立正確的教學秩序,因此是一個基督教的教導而非認識論或本體論。因此,即使加爾文將預定放在救贖論之下,也亦非限於救贖層面的討論。相反,加爾文全書的重點是預定論和護理,他的論文《論上帝的永恆預定》描繪護理與預定之間的聯繫,顯示他在過去的研究非並有意識地把預定的學說從神的教義中移開。[5]

Muller舉出不同的學者在教義排序與加爾文的教義上會有所不同,如此因為他們要提供合適的秩序或教學方式。其中,伯撒(Beza)考慮預定和基督的關係而放置預定的排序方式。伯撒在神的預定中,與加爾文一致,是作為永恆的命令,然而,無論是以何種形式給出的定義,其預定都不是按照教義的順序來放置的。[6]

因此,預定在創造和墮落教義以及與神的教義中的定位,某程度與神學系統本身的定義並非完全一致。[7] Muller認為教義在神學系統的各種位置,只是表明不同的學者是根據不同的模式來教導教義,而不是賦予教義有不同的含義,[8] 他指出幾乎所有關於16世紀和17世紀改革宗神學所提出的各種預定位置的定義和立場在討論都被從根本上誤導了,他們一直把定位與定義混為一談,實際上主要是一個體裁問題。在整個時期上學說佈局的轉變,並不暗示教義也發生了轉變,沒有證據表明早期學術的主張特徵,因此預定在教義位置上有不同的放置,並不意味著學者打算強調一個特定的教義關係。[9]

(二) 就加爾文和路德的觀點探討信徒最終會否失去救恩

有關加爾文與路德的觀點,楊慶球指出在神學觀點上,加爾文與路德共同的主張都是以聖經為重,強調人是以信心而非行為來稱義。在改革思想上,兩者的不同之處是,路德著重罪的探討,加爾文著重神的主權的探討,[10] 加爾文提出雙重預定,不過他強調的是神揀選的恩典,認為神預定人得救與滅亡是神的奧秘。而路德主張信心是主動的,認為人得救是因神的恩典,人的沉淪則是人自己要負上責任;[11] 加爾文則視信心為被動的。[12]

在預定的討論上,加爾文認為神的揀選是出於祂絕對的旨意,因為祂是全能的主。在他所提出的雙重預定論,基於神是不受時間限制的,因此並沒有神「預知」這回事,因為「預知」是有時間性,是指向未來的。[13] 加爾文的雙重預定論認為神揀選了一部份人得救,同時也預定了沒被揀選的人受永刑。但指出神並不是罪惡的源頭,而被揀選的人不是因他們的信心,而是因為神揀選他們。而路德指出神有雙重意志,一方面想要除去人的罪惡,而另一方面宣佈有審判,這就是神隱藏的自由旨意,認為人不可窺探。[14] 來支持路德思想的神學家反對加爾文的雙重預定,認為神預定人得救,但沒有預定人受永刑。[15]

在自由意志的看法上,路德及加爾文認為人在得救上並不能以自由意志來參與,認為人失去了行善的自由,只能靠神的恩典才得救、才有行善的能力。加爾文更肯定了人的自由意志在社會、家庭、生活的層面上仍然是有其重要的意義和價值。[16]

在得救的確據上,路德宣稱信仰的核心是因信稱義,這是強調神的恩典,而否定是因人的努力、以行為稱義的說法;但是在信心的理解上,路德視信心為主動的,認為人可以抗拒神的恩典,然而人落得沉淪的結果,並非因為神預定了人受咒詛,這是要為自己拒絕了救恩而負上責任。然而,加爾文則視信心為被動的,更因應路德的概念而帶出無可抗拒的恩典,指神會保守祂給予人的恩典、保守人的信心、因此人不能拒絕神的恩典。[17]

在恩典的理解上,路德認同普遍的恩典,[18] 路德強調的是信心非出於人的作為,而是神的主權所賜的,而人藉著神所賜的信心來領受神的恩典。[19] 加爾文則相信特殊的恩典,認為恩典是選擇性地臨到被揀選的人。對於人信主得救後會否有失落信心的可能,加爾文認為不可能,因為他認為神有足夠的能力保守祂所揀選的人,除非那人原先並不是真正相信主;路德則認為是可能的,人的意志可以選擇放棄,而信主後卻離棄主的人,會落得被焚燒的結局,然而他指出人的回轉也是因神的恩典,並非因人的自由意志。路德否定雙重預定,認為人的沉淪不是因神預定人滅亡,這只是人自己的選擇。[20]

有關人得救後最終會否有可能離棄真道的觀點上,趙天恩清楚歸納出,強調救恩不會失落的神學代表是奧古斯丁、加爾文、改革宗神學,[21] 這是「一次得救永遠得救」派,在救贖上是強調神的主權,認為人不可能失落,主張神所預定得救的人,神必有能力保守他們得永生,因此人必有堅定的信心。[22] 而認為救恩是可以失落的神學代表是阿他那修、路德、阿民念、衛斯理,[23] 「堅信到底才能得救」派,主張人有可能離棄真道,而人若不悔改就會失掉救恩。[24]

(三) 加爾文看神的護理

作者Kovalishyn指出彼得前書和雅各書的共通之處是同樣提到忍耐和救恩之間的聯繫。彼得專注於外部審判和迫害,雅各關注內在誘惑和試驗。[25] 彼得提到作為基督的追隨者這身份,會受到身體或社會的迫害,集中於面對迫害時如何作出適當的反應,提醒信徒要忍耐因為基督已得勝;雅各則焦點於面對內在的誘惑時人的內在反應,指出忍耐是有末世論的意味。[26]

作者的主要論題是彼得前書和雅各書帶出一個平行的信息,就是忍耐必須通過困境的考驗,才能證明是信徒具有真實的信仰,這也是信徒作見證的關鍵。[27] 揭示早期教會的根本教義所帶出神學的重點,作者指出兩者重新定義了「信仰」是動態的,就是面對任何的情況都要忍耐、持守信仰,[28] 兩者都是透過逆境中的忍耐來定義信仰。[29] 強調在救恩過程中,救恩是出於上帝的恩典,而人的忍耐是一個很重要的部份。[30] 雅各以先知和約伯作,彼得以挪亞為忍耐的範例, 提到即使他們遭受不公正的遭遇,但依然忍耐、堅持正義。兩者都提醒我們要記住上帝的信實,在不同情況下仍要忠於上帝並轉向他。[31] 另外,雅各和彼得都指出了耶穌是忍耐的榜樣。[32]

作者Helm指出加爾文對神的護理的看法是,所有事情都是由神的意旨來運作的,沒有任何事情是離開神的計劃或是偶然發生的,一切都是按照既定計劃進行的,[33] 整個創造的最終命運都是由神的主權來操作。[34] 然而,與慈運理的不同是,加爾文沒有以神的意旨並祂美善的屬性這個第一因作為唯一事實的原因,因加爾文同時強調作為第二因的受造物(人類)在罪惡行為上要負上責任,[35] 更進而引伸出神不是罪惡的源頭。[36]

Helm重點指出加爾文對護理的闡釋是以聖經為基礎、並以理性邏輯論證和敬畏神的不可知論來理解。加爾文肯定了神發出的旨意與祂的屬性是不能分割的,神的旨意是反映祂的智慧、聖潔和正義的屬性。加爾文亦否定一些顛覆聖經、與聖經的比喻有衝突的類比,認為用動物天生喜歡牠的後代來作為神愛人的比喻,是不符合聖經的理解,神既高於受造界,也就不會受制於受造界的法則。加爾文為了辯證也使用他不太喜歡的字眼「允許」,神預見人的墮落,但仍然容許這事會發生,是因為人的本性中有罪的傾向而會跌倒,這是人的選擇,神是出於祂公義的屬性而沒有阻止人的墮落。[37]

關於邪惡問題的討論,加爾文指出聖經中以西結書14:9,列王紀上22章,都看見神促使罪惡發生,而神亦會懲罰罪惡的行為,不過,加爾文持定神不是罪的創始者,至於要如何理解,加爾文認為這是超越人所能明白的奧秘。[38] 加爾文舉出聖經中的例子並不是要對神的意旨的方式進行合理化的解釋,而是為了證明它們之間沒有不一致。[39]

(四) 亞米念、加爾文、開放神學之間的不同觀點

Olson指出不少的改革宗神學家都誤解了亞米念主義為半伯糾主義這類異端。[40] 但其實亞米念主義與福音派一樣,在宗教改革的救贖信條上,是堅守唯獨恩典、唯獨信心、唯獨基督,[41] 只是亞米念反對「不能抗拒的恩典」。[42]

亞米念強烈地肯定,重生及恩典都非因人行善或自主而決定,認為人的自由意志在沒有恩典以先是沒有行善的能力的,而在人重生之後也是需要有神持續的恩典才能行善。[43] 亞米念指出人的信心是神所賜的禮物,同時是人以行動來回應神的先存恩典。亞米念認為信心是稱義的條件,而信心是源自神。[44]

而約翰衛斯理的立場是他深信人類的墮落,強調恩典,衛斯理走在加爾文主義的邊緣,他是阿米尼亞主義,因為他拒絕無條件㨂選和不可抗拒的恩典,且肯定了拯救中有神的協同。[45]

Horn指出了加爾文主義在預定論上對中間知識的看法。首先,他說神的自然知識是祂在所有的邏輯和形而上所知道的必然的真理知識,其次,神的自由知識是祂決定了哪個世界的實現,在創造世界中以祂的意旨決定祂所知道的一切事。而莫林那聲稱神是全知的,神不單只有上述兩種知識,他以彼得否認基督為例子,認為神還有中間知識,指出神會知道受造物在自由的情況下的所有可能的行為,就是指受造物自由的反事實。認為中間知識允許神對未確定的自由生物的世界進行細緻的控制。[46]

加爾文主義學者Terrence TiessenBruce Ware也認為神有兼容中間知識,是因為自由意味著人總是做自己最想要的事,而最想要的事是由一系列因素和情況所塑造的,神可以通過了解在哪種情況下會引起人最強烈的慾望,而知道人將在這些特殊情況下會做出的選擇。而當神決定要實現哪個可能的世界時,就用了這個中間知識。[47] Horn進一步指出反事實知識本身是不可能在現實中發生,就是說中間知識是神對一切不會出現在現實中的可能性的知識,因此它只是在邏輯上正確,但並沒有實際上的作用。[48]

有關亞米念與開放神學之間對神的護理的不同看法,作者Hicks指出亞米念是相信神有特定主權,而開放神論則否定特定主權,認為神有普遍主權。Hicks用歷史神學的方向來闡明亞米念對神的協同工作的理解,說明亞米念相信神協同受造物做出的每一個決定和行動,但神並不是引致或控制所有事情的發生,[49] 但認為沒有事情是偶然發生的,因為神所創造的一切是不可能超出神的旨意而獨行其事的,沒有得到神的允許,任何事情都不會發生。開放神論則支持神有普遍主權,認為並非每件事都有神預先定下的意旨,毫無意義的惡行是會允許發生的,然而,神是制定創造秩序的那一位,神對世界上受造物自行的邪惡行為並不需要特別要負上責任,因為祂不能違背自己所定立的規則而去阻止特定事情的發生。[50]

亞米念認為在因果關係上,神是一切有限受造物行為的第一因,在本體論上神引導一切行動朝著祂的意旨而行,[51] 然而神的協同並非指神行在第二因之上,而是與第二因同時並行,使之產生行為,因此第二因仍然是以自由來決定自己的行為的。[52]

有關神是否為罪的源頭的爭議,亞米念認為神是美善的源頭,神造出美善的事,強調神是美善的終極原因,亞米念將邪惡的起源歸因於人的自由,並肯定神是允許邪惡,但沒有造成邪惡,強調神不是邪惡的源頭。[53] 神允許罪的出現,但神並非被動的,罪的存在並不能影響神最終要作出祂美好的心意與計劃,因為神介入受造物的行動以及邪惡,[54] 設定罪的界限,縱然神允許人有犯罪的行為,但神是主權透過與人協同工作,將人的行為導向祂的目標,[55] 因此邪惡是受限於神特定的主權的約束,而萬物最終會因神的導引而趨向美好。[56] 開放神論則認為神並非命定一切事情的發生,神在創造的規則中允許有隨機的偶然事件存在,就是那些沒有目的或意義的事,神沒有為每一事件設想一個特定的目的,因此在人類經驗中,沒有具體意義的事件,可以理解為那只不過是一些偶然的事故。[57]

(五) 革新派的觀點

福音派神學有兩個分支,一為傾向歷史正統,另一為傾向新教自由主義。[58] 其後更一直分裂及演變。福音派自加爾文與亞米念的對抗開始已逐步分裂為清教徒改革宗傳統和衛斯理派/敬虔主義傳統。而近代福音派神學基於在神學方法、傳統教義、及聖經啟示權威上有分歧,20世紀70年代以來分裂為兩個新的對立陣營,分別稱為革新派和傳統主義者,兩者分裂的核心是在如何解讀聖經上持有不同的辯論,革新派著重個人詮釋。[59]

革新派認為傳統主義者的基本問題在於他們過分重視傳統。[60] 革新派傾向於拒絕傳統認為只有聖經才是最後的權威的觀點,不認為聖經的實際字句是默示的,認為被默示的只是聖經作者本身。[61] 認為聖經本身不是神的話語,而只是人們受制於文化條件下對神話語的見證。[62] 革新派挑戰傳統對教義及聖經的看法,認為傳統教義都是人為的成份,需要常常被革新,[63] 並且認為真正的信仰實質最重要的,是要經歷生命的轉化、行出正確的行為,而不是光有正統教義這一堆資訊。[64]

Vanhoozer指出革新派在教義和經驗之間形成了一種錯誤的二分法,他認為聖經具有本體的權威。[65] Vanhoozer的整體方法是傳統主義,超越了命題和經驗之間的二分法,認為聖經本身就是神的偉大作為。只有持著「單一來源」的傳統看法,聖經才有解釋學的權威,以避免走向自由派新教主義以經驗為重的理解。[66]

三、分析評論部份

(一)有關預定在教義中的位置

筆者很欣賞Muller追溯不同時期的神學家在教義上的次序編排,來澄清近代學者對教義在位置上的迷思,清晰地指出預定在教義上的次序安排並不是用來確定預定本身的意義,只是基於傳統或教學上的需要。

(二)就加爾文和路德的觀點探討信徒最終會否失去救恩

筆者贊同《中國與福音季刊》中楊慶球的總結,指出人真正「得救與否」,加爾文和路德同樣認為這是神旨意的奧祕。[67] 不過筆者認為,路德既指出人能否得救不是由人的自由意志來決定,但又說人能拒絕救恩,[68] 這樣路德在人的自由意志的說法上豈不是矛盾了嗎?

趙天恩引述按奧古斯丁所言,有被預定得救的人,即使中途會在信仰上跌倒,但最終都會回轉而得救;但沒有被預定得救的人,只是有暫時的信心,而最終亦不能堅持。[69] 但筆者的疑問是,信心不是神所賜的嗎?神預定人得救,就必會賜那被預定得救的人有信心去相信神。那麼沒有被預定得救的人,他們那份「暫時的信心」又從何而來?是否指這份信心是虛假的呢?若是虛假的,還可說那是信心嗎?

筆者欣賞趙氏總結出一個新的演繹,有關「重新得救」的定義,趙氏認為若人已信主得救,「在基督裡」就不會離道失落,[70]信主得救的人都有可能會犯罪,不過聖靈會提醒他認罪悔改,「在基督裡」是聖徒得救的保障,一個重新得救的人是會更渴慕及遵行神的旨意。[71]但筆者認為不足的地方是,趙氏沒有更多闡明何謂「在基督裡」,以及信徒要如何「在基督裡」。

而且,筆者不贊同趙氏所指,信主之後持守的信心與得救的信心不可分開來看,而重生與成聖也是不可分割的。[72] 他的意思是指,一個信主、重生得救的人,是會自然走上成聖的路,這是神給人的救贖恩典。但是筆者認為,信主之後持守的信心與得救的信心的不同的,筆者看見身旁的朋友信主各有不同的歷程,譬如說有些人決志信主,但生命仍然在走舊路,沒有真正認識神,生命沒有改變,他有得救的信心,但沒有信主之後持守的信心,這樣他的決志信主也算是得救了嗎?有些信徒,在信主初期很火熱追求神,生命也經歷改變,但後來不信,那麼他是否算是失去了救恩?但他之前的確真實地經歷生命被神改變。又有些信徒,他們平時不依靠神,有事時才向神禱告,那麼這些浮浮沉沉的生命他們是否「在基督裡」呢?他們最後會否得救呢?上述列舉的三類生命,是否因為他們在決志信主後卻沒有認真追求神、又或是最終離棄了真理而定義他們就是那些一開始就並非真心相信神的人?

筆者贊同趙氏在得救上的說法,指神的保守和信徒的堅信是同時並行的,是神與人之間的互動而造成的。[73]不過筆者對句話的演繹是,神賜人信心去相信祂,但成聖的路是需要付出努力的,這樣生命才會經歷真正的改變。難道一個人一開始明明是真真實實決志相信神,後來因遇上挫折而離棄神,就說神只賜人有決志相信神的那份信心、而又沒有賜人持續相信並渴慕追求神的心嗎?

Kovalishyn的文章重點指出了彼得前書和雅各書同樣強調忍耐與救恩的重要性,筆者欣賞作者說明真實的信仰是在救恩的路上有積極持續的忍耐。筆者贊同信仰是一個動態的、持續的過程,而真正的信仰是要經得起考驗。因為當信仰受到考驗,若能忍耐,信心就會變得更成熟。筆者認同作者指出信徒在考驗中的忍耐,是救恩的關鍵。[74] 不過,文中卻沒有提到的問題是,若信徒經不起外在的迫害和內在的誘惑,在試煉中不能忍耐到底、失去了信心,這是否信徒就會失去救恩?如若文中按著這個向度進一步探究信徒會否因為失去了忍耐的元素而失掉救恩,相信其中的討論會更全面及平衡。

(三)加爾文看神的護理

筆者欣賞Helm帶出了一項重要的看法,就是說加爾文對神的護理教義的提出並不是他整個系統的公理,然而卻是不可或缺的神學第一原則,宇宙中發生的一切都是憑藉神發出的意旨而進行,這是一個合乎理性邏輯、且是人所能理解的事,[75] 筆者認同Helm所指加爾文藉著護理推導出其他的基督教教義,不過,Helm只是描述了加爾文觀點,並沒有進一步探索其矛盾的地方,文中以加爾文舉出聖經例子來進一步解釋人行惡的原因,認為神沒有阻止行惡的人心裡變得剛硬,但神亦可以使隱密的靈來影響人,重新塑造人有跟隨神的行為。Helm指出加爾文對於聖經中矛盾的表象,認為神的旨意是隱密的、有不可知性,神使聖靈以超越人所能理解的方式來作轉變人心的工作。[76] 但筆者沒有看見Helm個人對此矛盾的看法,特別是神的公義與憐憫的屬性、以及人要為自己行惡負上責任,這部份的張力若能進一步研究,相信文章會更豐富及吸引。

(四)亞米念、加爾文、開放神學之間不同觀點

Olson對亞米念主義的澄清,筆者認同人本身沒有任何能力可以足以賺取救恩,除非神賜下恩典,人就可藉信而稱義。筆者亦欣賞Horn嘗試對神的協同工作的定義作出修正,以緩解對加爾文主義者對中間知識的張力,指出第二因()以自由作出的行動並非要先有神的預定才能作,[77] 但這點亦讓加爾文主義者認為神是因人的行動而作出下一步的決定,這樣未能解通神是以絕對主權來掌管萬有,筆者認為神是有絕對主權的,而人的自由、就是人所做的一切決定,也是在神的主權及神的護理的限制之下。筆者的傾向是認為神是與人協同工作,神的主權與人的自由是互相作用的,然而,至於如何協同則是奧祕,因為以有限的人去理解超越於人的想法,即使如何解釋也解釋得不完全。

筆者贊同Hicks指出開放神論是使人得到解放的,因為開放主義強調神是有普遍主權而非特定主權,認為神不會在每一件事上都介入並設立祂的心意,事情是有其隨機性的,如此就可把人無法理解的事歸因於偶然發生的隨機事件,如此就避免了人對神的不理解甚至是怨恨,使人不必為罪惡和苦難指責上帝,而是承擔個人的責任並與上帝合作,[78] 也能理解自己的邪惡和悲劇經驗,筆者認為這是開放神論有說服力的說法然而,Hicks的取向卻是亞米念的看法,雖然他表述了自身有很多悲劇的經驗,但他仍然認為神是無微不至的,無論事情對人而言是悲劇還是祝福,每一個經歷都有一個特定的神的心意,[79] 他肯定神在所創造的每件事上都有祂的護理,都有特定意義的,神的心意對人是好的。筆者也認同作者的總結,因為這是肯定了神的護理是反映神旨意的一種表達,[80] 肯定了神是以智慧、正義的屬性來管理萬物。筆者相信神以主權來允許邪惡的同時限制著邪惡,並在最終達成神心意中美好的結果。

筆者認為值得讓人省思的是,究竟神的主權對人有多大程度的護理?除了人恆常會問神為何會容讓悲劇、苦難發生,更引人思索的是,是否每一件事情的發生背後都有神的目的?譬如說一個人走路時踩中蕉皮跌倒、吃飯時考慮用筷子或用叉,在這些看來芝麻綠豆的小事上,是否都要問神的心意是甚麼?是否很多事的發生累積起來都有神的旨意在其中?是否真的每件事發生的背後都有具體的意義?

(五)革新派的觀點

筆者認同McDermott指出革新派挑戰傳統派對聖經的最終權威,但聖經的作者及所有的偉大傳統都是受到文化條件的限制,這樣屬靈經驗都是在文化下產生的,這又如何解釋呢?而且,革新派違背了傳統對聖經的詮釋,認為聖經的話語是受文化的束縛而非並默示的話語,只有那些了解這些文化的人才能擁有權威,那就豈不是缺乏權威了?筆者欣賞McDermott所言,要提防以人的宗教經驗視為大於聖經的教義這個誘惑,而變得主觀和個人主義。筆者認為信仰的實踐與經驗是重要的,但同時不要低估傳統的重要性,反而要更確認聖經只能通過傳統來閱讀。


參考書目:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY 楊慶球。〈一次得救,永遠得救?試從路德及加爾文的觀點比較〉。《中國與福音季刊》(20017-9),頁43-75

趙天恩。〈評楊慶球:《一次得救,永遠得救?試從路德及加爾文的觀點比較》〉。《中國與福音季刊》(20017-9),頁159-181

Helm, Paul. "Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence." Calvin Theological Journal 29, no. 2 (Nov. 1994): 388–405.

Hicks, John Mark. "'Classic Arminianism and open theism': a substantial difference in their theologies of providence." Trinity Journal 33, no. 1 (2012): 3–18.

Kovalishyn, Mariam Kamell. "'Endurance unto Salvation': The Witness of First Peter and James." Word & World 35, no. 3 (2015): 231–240.

McDermott, Gerald R. "Evangelical theology at the crossroads." Evangelical Review of Theology 38, no. 3 (Jul 2014): 250–264.

Muller, Richard A. "'The placement of predestination in Reformed theology': issue or non-issue?" Calvin Theological Journal 40, no. 2 (Nov 2005): 184–210.

Olson, Roger E. "Arminianism is evangelical theology." Wesleyan Theological Journal 46, no. 2 (Sep 2011): 7–24.

Van Horn, Luke. "'On incorporating middle knowledge into Calvinism': a theological/metaphysical muddle?" Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 55, no. 4 (Dec 2012): 807–827.



[1] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Drx146oI","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Richard A Muller, \\uc0\\u12300{}The placement of predestination in Reformed theology: issue or non-issue?\\uc0\\u12301{}, {\\i{}Calvin Theological Journal} 40, no. 2 (\\uc0\\u21313{}\\uc0\\u19968{}\\uc0\\u26376{} 2005): 184\\uc0\\u8211{}5.}","plainCitation":"Richard A Muller, The placement of predestination in Reformed theology: issue or non-issue?, Calvin Theological Journal 40, no. 2 (十一月 2005): 1845."},"citationItems":[{"id":247,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/WS5ITD62"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/WS5ITD62"],"itemData":{"id":247,"type":"article-journal","title":"The placement of predestination in Reformed theology: issue or non-issue?","container-title":"Calvin Theological Journal","page":"184-210","volume":"40","issue":"2","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0008-1795","shortTitle":"The placement of predestination in Reformed theology","journalAbbreviation":"Calvin Theological Journal","author":[{"family":"Muller","given":"Richard A"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2005",11]]}},"locator":"184-5","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} Richard A Muller, "'The placement of predestination in Reformed theology': issue or non-issue?," Calvin Theological Journal 40, no. 2 (Nov, 2005): 184–5.

[2] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"2lC5T8Iq","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Muller, \\uc0\\u12300{}The placement of predestination in Reformed theology: issue or non-issue?\\uc0\\u12301{}, 188.}","plainCitation":"Muller, The placement of predestination in Reformed theology: issue or non-issue?, 188."},"citationItems":[{"id":247,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/WS5ITD62"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/WS5ITD62"],"itemData":{"id":247,"type":"article-journal","title":"The placement of predestination in Reformed theology: issue or non-issue?","container-title":"Calvin Theological Journal","page":"184-210","volume":"40","issue":"2","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0008-1795","shortTitle":"The placement of predestination in Reformed theology","journalAbbreviation":"Calvin Theological Journal","author":[{"family":"Muller","given":"Richard A"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2005",11]]}},"locator":"188","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} Muller, 'The placement of predestination in Reformed theology,' 188.

[3] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Ld3bxh8R","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Muller, \\uc0\\u12300{}The placement of predestination in Reformed theology: issue or non-issue?\\uc0\\u12301{}, 188\\uc0\\u8211{}9.}","plainCitation":"Muller, The placement of predestination in Reformed theology: issue or non-issue?, 1889."},"citationItems":[{"id":247,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/WS5ITD62"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/WS5ITD62"],"itemData":{"id":247,"type":"article-journal","title":"The placement of predestination in Reformed theology: issue or non-issue?","container-title":"Calvin Theological Journal","page":"184-210","volume":"40","issue":"2","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0008-1795","shortTitle":"The placement of predestination in Reformed theology","journalAbbreviation":"Calvin Theological Journal","author":[{"family":"Muller","given":"Richard A"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2005",11]]}},"locator":"188-9","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} Muller, 'The placement of predestination in Reformed theology,' 188-91.

[4] Muller, 'The placement of predestination in Reformed theology,' 191-2.

[5] Muller, 'The placement of predestination in Reformed theology,' 194-5.

[6] Muller, 'The placement of predestination in Reformed theology,' 197-9.

[7] Muller, 'The placement of predestination in Reformed theology,' 204-5.

[8] Muller, 'The placement of predestination in Reformed theology,' 208. 安置也不會導致有不同的教義重點,因為各種安置的本身已顯示了在預定和相關教義的定義中已經存在的不同的關係,而不是因此教義的位置不影響定義,可能是表示教學或傳統選擇而非一種教義的主張。

[9] Muller, 'The placement of predestination in Reformed theology,' 209-10.

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[21] 趙天恩:〈評楊慶球:《一次得救,永遠得救?試從路德及加爾文的觀點比較》〉,《中國與福音季刊》(20017-9),頁164-6

[22] 趙天恩:〈評楊慶球:《一次得救,永遠得救?試從路德及加爾文的觀點比較》〉,頁164-6

[23] 趙天恩:〈評楊慶球:《一次得救,永遠得救?試從路德及加爾文的觀點比較》〉,頁164, 166-8

[24] 趙天恩:〈評楊慶球:《一次得救,永遠得救?試從路德及加爾文的觀點比較》〉,頁162

[25] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"U8Monpwc","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Mariam Kamell Kovalishyn, \\uc0\\u12300{}Endurance unto Salvation: The Witness of First Peter and James\\uc0\\u12301{}, {\\i{}Word & World} 35, no. 3 (2015): 231.}","plainCitation":"Mariam Kamell Kovalishyn, Endurance unto Salvation: The Witness of First Peter and James, Word & World 35, no. 3 (2015): 231."},"citationItems":[{"id":243,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/VZH36ULP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/VZH36ULP"],"itemData":{"id":243,"type":"article-journal","title":"Endurance unto Salvation: The Witness of First Peter and James","container-title":"Word & World","page":"231-240","volume":"35","issue":"3","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0275-5270","shortTitle":"Endurance unto salvation","journalAbbreviation":"Word & World","author":[{"family":"Kovalishyn","given":"Mariam Kamell"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}},"locator":"231","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} Mariam Kamell Kovalishyn, "'Endurance unto Salvation': The Witness of First Peter and James," Word & World 35, no. 3 (2015): 231.

[26] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"JIe9aC6N","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Kovalishyn, \\uc0\\u12300{}Endurance unto Salvation: The Witness of First Peter and James\\uc0\\u12301{}, 233, 239\\uc0\\u8211{}40.}","plainCitation":"Kovalishyn, Endurance unto Salvation: The Witness of First Peter and James, 233, 23940."},"citationItems":[{"id":243,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/VZH36ULP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/VZH36ULP"],"itemData":{"id":243,"type":"article-journal","title":"Endurance unto Salvation: The Witness of First Peter and James","container-title":"Word & World","page":"231-240","volume":"35","issue":"3","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0275-5270","shortTitle":"Endurance unto salvation","journalAbbreviation":"Word & World","author":[{"family":"Kovalishyn","given":"Mariam Kamell"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}},"locator":"233, 239-40","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} Kovalishyn, 'Endurance unto Salvation,' 233, 239–40.

[27] Kovalishyn, 'Endurance unto Salvation,' 231, 235.

[28] Kovalishyn, 'Endurance unto Salvation,' 231, 240.

[29] Kovalishyn, 'Endurance unto Salvation,' 235.

[30] Kovalishyn, 'Endurance unto Salvation,' 231.

[31] Kovalishyn, 'Endurance unto Salvation,' 237.

[32] Kovalishyn, 'Endurance unto Salvation,' 239. 作者指出福音書兩次引述耶穌說:「惟有忍耐到底的必然得救」(10:2224:13),以及強調在智慧和先知傳統中,面對持久的誘惑和社會的不公正,忍耐是必要的條件。

[33] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"JusgcCBq","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Paul Helm, \\uc0\\u12300{}Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence\\uc0\\u12301{}, {\\i{}Calvin Theological Journal} 29, no. 2 (\\uc0\\u21313{}\\uc0\\u19968{}\\uc0\\u26376{} 1994): 389.}","plainCitation":"Paul Helm, Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence, Calvin Theological Journal 29, no. 2 (十一月 1994): 389."},"citationItems":[{"id":249,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/D6H2KFZE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/D6H2KFZE"],"itemData":{"id":249,"type":"article-journal","title":"Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence","container-title":"Calvin Theological Journal","page":"388-405","volume":"29","issue":"2","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0008-1795","journalAbbreviation":"Calvin Theological Journal","author":[{"family":"Helm","given":"Paul"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1994",11]]}},"locator":"389","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} Paul Helm, "Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence," Calvin Theological Journal 29, no. 2 (Nov. 1994): 389.

[34] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Vnd8uXCO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Helm, \\uc0\\u12300{}Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence\\uc0\\u12301{}, 389\\uc0\\u8211{}90.}","plainCitation":"Helm, Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence, 38990."},"citationItems":[{"id":249,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/D6H2KFZE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/D6H2KFZE"],"itemData":{"id":249,"type":"article-journal","title":"Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence","container-title":"Calvin Theological Journal","page":"388-405","volume":"29","issue":"2","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0008-1795","journalAbbreviation":"Calvin Theological Journal","author":[{"family":"Helm","given":"Paul"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1994",11]]}},"locator":"389-90","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} Helm, "Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence," 389–90, 400. Helm指出在加爾文的神學方法中,加爾文不反對使用中世紀經院哲學的概念來對神的作為做理解區分,認為神以其屬性來運作祂的旨意,而神的旨意是會成為必然的事實

[35] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ewH9I78U","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Helm, \\uc0\\u12300{}Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence\\uc0\\u12301{}, 389\\uc0\\u8211{}90.}","plainCitation":"Helm, Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence, 38990."},"citationItems":[{"id":249,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/D6H2KFZE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/D6H2KFZE"],"itemData":{"id":249,"type":"article-journal","title":"Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence","container-title":"Calvin Theological Journal","page":"388-405","volume":"29","issue":"2","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0008-1795","journalAbbreviation":"Calvin Theological Journal","author":[{"family":"Helm","given":"Paul"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1994",11]]}},"locator":"389-90","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} Helm, "Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence," 402-3.

[36] Helm, "Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence," 405.

[37] Helm, "Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence," 391-5.

[38] Helm, "Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence," 396-7. 加爾文肯定了神的旨意是最高的法則,他以聖經人物約伯這個敬虔的人受苦,卻沒有指責神為例,以此作為證明神的品格的證據,指出神不是罪的源頭。加爾文這個論證仍然是帶出神是以超越人的經驗常識所能理解的方式去實行祂的意旨。

[39] Helm, "Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence," 399.

[40] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"lqgkYxoY","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Roger E Olson, \\uc0\\u12300{}Arminianism is evangelical theology\\uc0\\u12301{}, {\\i{}Wesleyan Theological Journal} 46, no. 2 (\\uc0\\u20061{}\\uc0\\u26376{} 2011): 7.}","plainCitation":"Roger E Olson, Arminianism is evangelical theology, Wesleyan Theological Journal 46, no. 2 (九月 2011): 7."},"citationItems":[{"id":251,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/KQ4FCP6S"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/KQ4FCP6S"],"itemData":{"id":251,"type":"article-journal","title":"Arminianism is evangelical theology","container-title":"Wesleyan Theological Journal","page":"7-24","volume":"46","issue":"2","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0092-4245","journalAbbreviation":"Wesleyan Theological Journal","author":[{"family":"Olson","given":"Roger E"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011",9]]}},"locator":"7","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} Roger E Olson, "Arminianism is evangelical theology," Wesleyan Theological Journal 46, no. 2 (Sep. 2011): 7.

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[42] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"TQsICFqE","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Olson, \\uc0\\u12300{}Arminianism is evangelical theology\\uc0\\u12301{}, 8.}","plainCitation":"Olson, Arminianism is evangelical theology, 8."},"citationItems":[{"id":251,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/KQ4FCP6S"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/KQ4FCP6S"],"itemData":{"id":251,"type":"article-journal","title":"Arminianism is evangelical theology","container-title":"Wesleyan Theological Journal","page":"7-24","volume":"46","issue":"2","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0092-4245","journalAbbreviation":"Wesleyan Theological Journal","author":[{"family":"Olson","given":"Roger E"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011",9]]}},"locator":"8","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} Olson, "Arminianism is evangelical theology," 12.

[43] Olson, "Arminianism is evangelical theology," 10-1.

[44] Olson, "Arminianism is evangelical theology," 14-5.

[45] Olson, "Arminianism is evangelical theology," 18. 透過協同,人的自由意願藉著神的恩典而與神拯救的意願互相合作。

[46] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"rU6VXzh7","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Luke Van Horn, \\uc0\\u12300{}On incorporating middle knowledge into Calvinism: a theological/metaphysical muddle?\\uc0\\u12301{}, {\\i{}Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society} 55, no. 4 (\\uc0\\u21313{}\\uc0\\u20108{}\\uc0\\u26376{} 2012): 810\\uc0\\u8211{}1.}","plainCitation":"Luke Van Horn, On incorporating middle knowledge into Calvinism: a theological/metaphysical muddle?, Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 55, no. 4 (十二月 2012): 8101."},"citationItems":[{"id":241,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/TUY2AMXX"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/TUY2AMXX"],"itemData":{"id":241,"type":"article-journal","title":"On incorporating middle knowledge into Calvinism: a theological/metaphysical muddle?","container-title":"Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society","page":"807-827","volume":"55","issue":"4","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0360-8808","shortTitle":"On incorporating middle knowledge into Calvinism","journalAbbreviation":"Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society","author":[{"family":"Van Horn","given":"Luke"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012",12]]}},"locator":"810-1","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} Luke Van Horn, "'On incorporating middle knowledge into Calvinism': a theological/metaphysical muddle?," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 55, no. 4 (Dec. 2012): 810–2.

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[49] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"2ZiyZgYv","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf John Mark Hicks, \\uc0\\u12300{}Classic Arminianism and open theism: a substantial difference in their theologies of providence\\uc0\\u12301{}, {\\i{}Trinity Journal} 33, no. 1 (2012): 4\\uc0\\u8211{}5.}","plainCitation":"John Mark Hicks, Classic Arminianism and open theism: a substantial difference in their theologies of providence, Trinity Journal 33, no. 1 (2012): 45."},"citationItems":[{"id":239,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/E53KL7CR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/E53KL7CR"],"itemData":{"id":239,"type":"article-journal","title":"Classic Arminianism and open theism: a substantial difference in their theologies of providence","container-title":"Trinity Journal","page":"3-18","volume":"33","issue":"1","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0360-3032","shortTitle":"Classic Arminianism and open theism","journalAbbreviation":"Trinity Journal","author":[{"family":"Hicks","given":"John Mark"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]}},"locator":"4-5","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} John Mark Hicks, "'Classic Arminianism and open theism': a substantial difference in their theologies of providence," Trinity Journal 33, no. 1 (2012): 4–5.

[50] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"r2e4jZqG","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Hicks, \\uc0\\u12300{}Classic Arminianism and open theism: a substantial difference in their theologies of providence\\uc0\\u12301{}, 11\\uc0\\u8211{}3.}","plainCitation":"Hicks, Classic Arminianism and open theism: a substantial difference in their theologies of providence, 113."},"citationItems":[{"id":239,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/E53KL7CR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/E53KL7CR"],"itemData":{"id":239,"type":"article-journal","title":"Classic Arminianism and open theism: a substantial difference in their theologies of providence","container-title":"Trinity Journal","page":"3-18","volume":"33","issue":"1","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0360-3032","shortTitle":"Classic Arminianism and open theism","journalAbbreviation":"Trinity Journal","author":[{"family":"Hicks","given":"John Mark"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]}},"locator":"11-3","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} Hicks, 'Classic Arminianism and open theism,' 11–3.

[51] Hicks, 'Classic Arminianism and open theism,' 5-6, 11.

[52] Hicks, 'Classic Arminianism and open theism,' 6.

[53] Hicks, 'Classic Arminianism and open theism,' 6, 11.

[54] Hicks, 'Classic Arminianism and open theism,' 10.

[55] Hicks, 'Classic Arminianism and open theism,' 8-9.

[56] Hicks, 'Classic Arminianism and open theism,' 11.

[57] Hicks, 'Classic Arminianism and open theism,' 14.

[58] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Quetd8tM","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Gerald R McDermott, \\uc0\\u12300{}Evangelical theology at the crossroads\\uc0\\u12301{}, {\\i{}Evangelical Review of Theology} 38, no. 3 (\\uc0\\u19971{}\\uc0\\u26376{} 2014): 250.}","plainCitation":"Gerald R McDermott, Evangelical theology at the crossroads, Evangelical Review of Theology 38, no. 3 (七月 2014): 250."},"citationItems":[{"id":245,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/A7LVKYS2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/A7LVKYS2"],"itemData":{"id":245,"type":"article-journal","title":"Evangelical theology at the crossroads","container-title":"Evangelical Review of Theology","page":"250-264","volume":"38","issue":"3","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0144-8153","journalAbbreviation":"Evangelical Review of Theology","author":[{"family":"McDermott","given":"Gerald R"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014",7]]}},"locator":"250","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} Gerald R McDermott, "Evangelical theology at the crossroads," Evangelical Review of Theology 38, no. 3 (Jul. 2014): 250.

[59] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"60wqPUKy","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf McDermott, \\uc0\\u12300{}Evangelical theology at the crossroads\\uc0\\u12301{}, 253, 260.}","plainCitation":"McDermott, Evangelical theology at the crossroads, 253, 260."},"citationItems":[{"id":245,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/A7LVKYS2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/A7LVKYS2"],"itemData":{"id":245,"type":"article-journal","title":"Evangelical theology at the crossroads","container-title":"Evangelical Review of Theology","page":"250-264","volume":"38","issue":"3","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0144-8153","journalAbbreviation":"Evangelical Review of Theology","author":[{"family":"McDermott","given":"Gerald R"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014",7]]}},"locator":"253, 260","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} McDermott, "Evangelical theology at the crossroads," 253, 260.

[60] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"60wqPUKy","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf McDermott, \\uc0\\u12300{}Evangelical theology at the crossroads\\uc0\\u12301{}, 253, 260.}","plainCitation":"McDermott, Evangelical theology at the crossroads, 253, 260."},"citationItems":[{"id":245,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/A7LVKYS2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/A7LVKYS2"],"itemData":{"id":245,"type":"article-journal","title":"Evangelical theology at the crossroads","container-title":"Evangelical Review of Theology","page":"250-264","volume":"38","issue":"3","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0144-8153","journalAbbreviation":"Evangelical Review of Theology","author":[{"family":"McDermott","given":"Gerald R"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014",7]]}},"locator":"253, 260","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} McDermott, "Evangelical theology at the crossroads," 254, 262.傳統主義者是包括比較主義者和古代正統派。而革新派與士萊馬赫的看法相近,認同經驗是信仰的中心和本質,比信條更重要。

[61] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"60wqPUKy","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf McDermott, \\uc0\\u12300{}Evangelical theology at the crossroads\\uc0\\u12301{}, 253, 260.}","plainCitation":"McDermott, Evangelical theology at the crossroads, 253, 260."},"citationItems":[{"id":245,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/A7LVKYS2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/A7LVKYS2"],"itemData":{"id":245,"type":"article-journal","title":"Evangelical theology at the crossroads","container-title":"Evangelical Review of Theology","page":"250-264","volume":"38","issue":"3","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0144-8153","journalAbbreviation":"Evangelical Review of Theology","author":[{"family":"McDermott","given":"Gerald R"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014",7]]}},"locator":"253, 260","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} McDermott, "Evangelical theology at the crossroads," 254.

[62] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"60wqPUKy","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf McDermott, \\uc0\\u12300{}Evangelical theology at the crossroads\\uc0\\u12301{}, 253, 260.}","plainCitation":"McDermott, Evangelical theology at the crossroads, 253, 260."},"citationItems":[{"id":245,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/A7LVKYS2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/A7LVKYS2"],"itemData":{"id":245,"type":"article-journal","title":"Evangelical theology at the crossroads","container-title":"Evangelical Review of Theology","page":"250-264","volume":"38","issue":"3","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0144-8153","journalAbbreviation":"Evangelical Review of Theology","author":[{"family":"McDermott","given":"Gerald R"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014",7]]}},"locator":"253, 260","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} McDermott, "Evangelical theology at the crossroads," 256.

[63] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"60wqPUKy","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf McDermott, \\uc0\\u12300{}Evangelical theology at the crossroads\\uc0\\u12301{}, 253, 260.}","plainCitation":"McDermott, Evangelical theology at the crossroads, 253, 260."},"citationItems":[{"id":245,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/A7LVKYS2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/A7LVKYS2"],"itemData":{"id":245,"type":"article-journal","title":"Evangelical theology at the crossroads","container-title":"Evangelical Review of Theology","page":"250-264","volume":"38","issue":"3","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0144-8153","journalAbbreviation":"Evangelical Review of Theology","author":[{"family":"McDermott","given":"Gerald R"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014",7]]}},"locator":"253, 260","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} McDermott, "Evangelical theology at the crossroads," 260. 革新派承認所有的傳統都是人為的,但又認為聖經絕不能脫離一些傳統。

[64] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"60wqPUKy","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf McDermott, \\uc0\\u12300{}Evangelical theology at the crossroads\\uc0\\u12301{}, 253, 260.}","plainCitation":"McDermott, Evangelical theology at the crossroads, 253, 260."},"citationItems":[{"id":245,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/A7LVKYS2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/A7LVKYS2"],"itemData":{"id":245,"type":"article-journal","title":"Evangelical theology at the crossroads","container-title":"Evangelical Review of Theology","page":"250-264","volume":"38","issue":"3","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0144-8153","journalAbbreviation":"Evangelical Review of Theology","author":[{"family":"McDermott","given":"Gerald R"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014",7]]}},"locator":"253, 260","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} McDermott, "Evangelical theology at the crossroads," 256.

[65] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"60wqPUKy","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf McDermott, \\uc0\\u12300{}Evangelical theology at the crossroads\\uc0\\u12301{}, 253, 260.}","plainCitation":"McDermott, Evangelical theology at the crossroads, 253, 260."},"citationItems":[{"id":245,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/A7LVKYS2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/A7LVKYS2"],"itemData":{"id":245,"type":"article-journal","title":"Evangelical theology at the crossroads","container-title":"Evangelical Review of Theology","page":"250-264","volume":"38","issue":"3","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0144-8153","journalAbbreviation":"Evangelical Review of Theology","author":[{"family":"McDermott","given":"Gerald R"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014",7]]}},"locator":"253, 260","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} McDermott, "Evangelical theology at the crossroads," 257.

[66] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"60wqPUKy","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf McDermott, \\uc0\\u12300{}Evangelical theology at the crossroads\\uc0\\u12301{}, 253, 260.}","plainCitation":"McDermott, Evangelical theology at the crossroads, 253, 260."},"citationItems":[{"id":245,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/A7LVKYS2"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/A7LVKYS2"],"itemData":{"id":245,"type":"article-journal","title":"Evangelical theology at the crossroads","container-title":"Evangelical Review of Theology","page":"250-264","volume":"38","issue":"3","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0144-8153","journalAbbreviation":"Evangelical Review of Theology","author":[{"family":"McDermott","given":"Gerald R"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014",7]]}},"locator":"253, 260","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} McDermott, "Evangelical theology at the crossroads," 261.而越來越多的傳統主義神學家正在恢復中世紀時期對聖經的看法,就是每個聖經文本只有一個意思,拒絕了現代主義的假設。

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[69] 趙天恩:〈評楊慶球:《一次得救,永遠得救?試從路德及加爾文的觀點比較》〉,頁163

[70] 趙天恩:〈評楊慶球:《一次得救,永遠得救?試從路德及加爾文的觀點比較》〉,頁177

[71] 趙天恩:〈評楊慶球:《一次得救,永遠得救?試從路德及加爾文的觀點比較》〉,頁178-9

[72] 趙天恩:〈評楊慶球:《一次得救,永遠得救?試從路德及加爾文的觀點比較》〉,頁179

[73] 趙天恩:〈評楊慶球:《一次得救,永遠得救?試從路德及加爾文的觀點比較》〉,頁174-5

[74] Kovalishyn, 'Endurance unto Salvation,' 232.

[75] Helm, "Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence," 401.

[76] Helm, "Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence," 399.

[77] ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"TQsICFqE","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Olson, \\uc0\\u12300{}Arminianism is evangelical theology\\uc0\\u12301{}, 8.}","plainCitation":"Olson, Arminianism is evangelical theology, 8."},"citationItems":[{"id":251,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/KQ4FCP6S"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/KQ4FCP6S"],"itemData":{"id":251,"type":"article-journal","title":"Arminianism is evangelical theology","container-title":"Wesleyan Theological Journal","page":"7-24","volume":"46","issue":"2","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0092-4245","journalAbbreviation":"Wesleyan Theological Journal","author":[{"family":"Olson","given":"Roger E"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011",9]]}},"locator":"8","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"zX03Snps","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Van Horn, \\uc0\\u12300{}On incorporating middle knowledge into Calvinism: a theological/metaphysical muddle?\\uc0\\u12301{}, 812\\uc0\\u8211{}3.}","plainCitation":"Van Horn, On incorporating middle knowledge into Calvinism: a theological/metaphysical muddle?, 8123."},"citationItems":[{"id":241,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/TUY2AMXX"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/3539298/items/TUY2AMXX"],"itemData":{"id":241,"type":"article-journal","title":"On incorporating middle knowledge into Calvinism: a theological/metaphysical muddle?","container-title":"Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society","page":"807-827","volume":"55","issue":"4","source":"EBSCOhost","ISSN":"0360-8808","shortTitle":"On incorporating middle knowledge into Calvinism","journalAbbreviation":"Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society","author":[{"family":"Van Horn","given":"Luke"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012",12]]}},"locator":"812-3","label":"page"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} Van Horn, 'On incorporating middle knowledge into Calvinism,' 821-2.

[78] Hicks, 'Classic Arminianism and open theism,' 13-4.

[79] Hicks, 'Classic Arminianism and open theism,' 18.

[80] Hicks, 'Classic Arminianism and open theism,' 9.

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